General FAQ

Ophthalmology is the medical branch that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of eye diseases. Ophthalmologists are specialists who take care of the health of your eyes.

The best ophthalmologist is the one who keeps up with modern technologies in the field of ophthalmology. It’s important that your ophthalmologist has several years of experience in this field and treats each patient equally. The Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara” with 20 years of experience successfully performs over 1750 procedures annually with the help of the latest technology.

Intraocular implants Vivity belong to the group of EDOF lenses (extended depth of focus), which means lenses with extended focus. With their help, it is possible to see clearly at a distance as well as read small print up close. They do not need to be changed or removed.

Blepharoplasty, or cosmetic eyelid surgery, is a surgical procedure used to remove excess skin from the upper eyelids and excess skin and/or fat pockets from the lower eyelids. This procedure is not painful and is performed under local anesthesia. There are two types of blepharoplasty: standard blepharoplasty (using an electro knife) and laser blepharoplasty (using a fractional CO2 laser).

You can contact our colleagues at the Call Center, who will provide you with all the necessary information, using the following phone numbers:

+387 51 439 591

+387 51 439 592

+387 66 916 445 (also available on Viber and WhatsApp)

If you prefer, you can leave us your phone number, and the Call Center colleagues will call you to provide all the necessary information.

Refractive surgery

Verisyse, Veriflex, and Vision ICL lenses are types of intraocular lenses that are implanted into the anterior chamber of the eye (between the iris and the cornea, or between the iris and the crystalline lens) to correct refractive errors. The implantation of Verisyse, Veriflex, and Vision ICL lenses serves as an alternative to laser refractive surgery when a patient is not a suitable candidate for laser vision correction, such as in cases of high refractive errors or thin corneas. A detailed examination is required to determine whether a patient seeking refractive correction is a candidate for laser vision correction or lens implantation, considering various measurements and calculations that are assessed.

The surgical procedure is most often performed under local anesthesia. When implanting Verisyse and Veriflex lenses, a small incision is made at the edge of the cornea, and the lens is inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. With special instruments, it is gently secured to the iris in front of the pupil. This way, the lens is firmly positioned in the appropriate place. A single stitch is rarely placed at the incision site (located under the upper eyelid), which is usually removed after about a month following the surgery. As for the Vision ICL phakic intraocular lens, the implantation procedure is similar, except that the lens is not fixed to the iris but is implanted in front of the natural lens, and the corneal incision is not sutured.

Astigmatism is an irregular curvature of the cornea corrected by cylindrical diopters. By implanting toric phakic intraocular lenses, such as the Vision ICL, today astigmatisms of up to +6.00 diopters can be corrected.

No. The implantation of lenses only corrects the diopter, and accommodation in the eye remains preserved. This means that our natural lens adapts and focuses for good near vision through the power of accommodation.

The implantation of lenses in the anterior chamber of the eye is a reversible process. In the event of cataracts (clouding of our natural lens), phakic intraocular lenses can be easily removed from the eye, and cataract surgery is continued using the standard ultrasound method. In case of injury, trauma, glaucoma, or any other eye condition, the lens is also removed, and appropriate treatment is applied.

Every surgical procedure carries a certain risk of complications. Firstly, there is a risk of infection, as with any surgery, but it is truly negligible in our clinic thanks to the extensive experience of the surgeons and the cleanliness and sterility standards in the operating rooms. There is also a possibility of a transient increase in intraocular pressure during the immediate postoperative recovery period (usually the first 2 weeks) until new dynamics of aqueous humor circulation are established. Every eye surgery also carries a risk of retinal detachment, but it is extremely rare and minimal. Any complication can be managed.

In a certain percentage of patients with implanted lenses, a change in prescription is possible (in 2% to 5%). If there is a change in prescription, it is possible to undergo laser vision correction, or the difference can be corrected with glasses. Lens implantation is a reversible procedure, and in case of a significant change in prescription, it is possible to replace the lens with an appropriate one, or a stronger one.

All restrictions are communicated to the patient during preoperative preparation and during the postoperative visit on the morning after the surgery. It is necessary to follow the instructions for using mandatory therapy. The operated eye should not be washed or rinsed for at least 7 days after the surgery because tap water sometimes contains impurities and microorganisms, and the eye has a fresh surgical wound. If necessary, the eye can be gently rinsed with artificial tears or saline solution. The eye should not be rubbed or touched with hands. For the first 7 to 10 days, it is necessary to protect the eye with darker sunglasses when going outside and avoid wind, smoke, dust, cooking vapors, and cleaning agents vapors. It is recommended not to lift heavy objects, not to stay in a bent position for long periods, avoid intense physical exercise, and avoid swimming pools, baths, and saunas, all within the first month after the procedure. After the first month post-surgery, all restrictions are lifted.

In our clinic, all methods of laser vision correction are applied, including PRK (Photorefractive Keratectomy), LASIK (Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis), as well as Epi-LASIK, LASEK, and T-PRK. Depending on the type and degree of refractive error, as well as the findings of the eye examination, patients are offered options to choose the technique for the surgery. In over 95% of cases, we apply the LASIK method.

There are two basic conditions that every candidate for surgery must meet, and those are to be over 18 years of age and to have stable vision for at least one year before the surgery. Other conditions include a range of refractive errors from +6.00 D to -10.00 D, sufficient corneal thickness, as well as the absence of other eye diseases, primarily in the retina.

Laser vision correction and pregnancy have no connection, and surgeries are performed even on women who have not given birth. There is an extremely small chance that hormonal changes during pregnancy will affect the refractive error, and corrective aids (glasses, lenses) or laser surgery have no impact on this process. For women whose refractive error did not change during their first pregnancy, the likelihood of it happening in the second is extremely small. The laser surgery itself does not influence the choice of delivery method.

An appointment can be scheduled within one day from the day of your call. Our nurses will provide you with the first available slot at a time that suits you. We have multiple doctors conducting laser examinations, so we can accommodate you as much as possible.

Prije pregleda potrebno je skinuti kontaktna

Before the appointment, you need to remove your contact lenses, at least 3 days for soft lenses, and 8 days for hard lenses, and arrange for transportation as you will not be able to drive when your pupils are dilated. Additionally, it’s necessary to bring any previous medical records if you have them.

, i to barem 3 dana za meka, a 8 dana za tvrda sočiva, te osigurati pratnju jer nećete moći voziti kada su Vam zjenice široke. Osim toga, potrebno je ponijeti stare nalaze ukoliko ih imate.

Before the appointment, you should remove soft contact lenses for at least 3 full days, while for semi-rigid and rigid contact lenses, this period is at least 8 days. This allows the eye’s surface to “rest,” ensuring the accuracy of measurements and results.

The method of laser vision correction has been in clinical use for over 20 years, with over 40 million people worldwide having undergone this procedure so far. The only complications of this procedure may be transient postoperative dryness of the eye and a partial return of the corrected vision. Both of these complications cannot lead to vision loss and cannot be predicted because they depend on the individual potential for tissue healing. Postoperative dryness of the eye is resolved with artificial tears in the form of drops applied until the tear film recovers. The partial return of vision can be addressed either with additional laser treatment or by wearing corrective lenses. It should be noted that over 95% of patients experience no difficulties after the procedure.

In theory, it’s possible to have the examination and the surgery on the same day, but it’s not advisable. Since we dilate the pupils during the examination to examine your lens and the back of your eye, it’s necessary to wait 2-4 hours for the pupils to return to their original state as required by the laser. The process itself then takes a long time and is not comfortable for the person awaiting surgery. We believe it’s psychologically and technically much simpler to have at least a day’s difference between the examination and the surgery.

Before the actual laser eye surgery, anesthesia is administered in the form of eye drops, so the surgery is completely painless. The surgery takes 5 minutes per eye. The laser reshapes the prescription in seconds (1.5 seconds are needed to remove 1 diopter), and during that time, it’s important to keep looking calmly at the lights above. The operator communicates with you throughout the procedure, guiding you through it. The laser has an “eye tracker” that follows the eye movements, thus preventing any possibility of error. Before the surgery, a check-up of the prescription is performed along with a brief discussion. After the surgery, you’ll receive instructions from our nurses along with eye drops and a discharge letter. Your stay in the clinic on that day lasts slightly over an hour.

After the surgery, you should refrain from heavy physical activities for a month, although light jogging or exercise can be resumed after 2 weeks. Initially, it’s advisable to avoid smoky and dusty environments, while watching TV, working on a computer, and driving can be resumed once the postoperative dryness of the eyes subsides and you feel comfortable. Therefore, you can engage in these activities just a few days after the surgery, within the limits of your comfort. None of these activities can affect the potential return of the prescription, so you need not worry about that. Women should avoid wearing makeup for 3 weeks after the surgery, but washing the face can be done after 3 days. In the first 3 days after surgery, instead of washing the face, the eye should be rinsed with artificial tears to reduce the risk of infection. You can swim in the sea after 2 weeks postoperatively, but you should refrain from swimming in pools for a month due to the possibility of eye infection.

Follow-up appointments are scheduled for the day after the surgery, within seven days, after one month, then after three months, and thereafter once a year. The first two appointments are the most important, so it is preferable to have them done with us. Further appointments are arranged individually. All appointments within the first month after the surgery are free of charge.


Before cataract surgery, it is necessary to perform an electrocardiogram (EKG) and complete blood count (CBC), as well as check blood sugar levels (glucose) and urine analysis.

Cataract surgery is a painless surgical procedure. The eye is anesthetized with drops before the procedure, meaning local anesthesia is applied, and during the surgery, patients may feel slight pressure in the eye, which they are informed about. The patient is fully awake, conscious, and cooperative during the surgery.

At the time of the patient’s appointment, the preoperative examination and dilation of the pupils before the surgery begin. This process takes about 30 minutes. After that, the patient undergoes the surgery, which lasts about 10 minutes. Following the surgery, a short rest period is observed, and then the patient leaves our clinic.

Patients are briefed on all limitations during the preoperative preparation and the visit or check-up the morning after the surgery. It is necessary to adhere to the instructions for using the prescribed therapy. The operated eye should not be washed or rinsed for at least 7 days postoperatively, as tap water may contain impurities and microorganisms, and the eye is a fresh surgical wound. If necessary, the eye can be gently rinsed with artificial tears or saline solution. The eye should not be rubbed or touched with hands. For the first 7-10 days, it is necessary to protect the eye with darker sunglasses when going outside and avoid wind, smoke, dust, cooking fumes, and cleaning agents’ fumes. It is recommended not to lift heavy weights, avoid prolonged bending, avoid strenuous exercise, and avoid swimming pools, baths, and saunas, all within the first month after the procedure. After the first month, there are no restrictions.

Watching television, using a computer, driving, and reading are allowed when you feel comfortable and when nothing bothers, irritates, or burns your eye. You are the best judge of that.

In the past, cataracts were operated using the classic method, which involved removing the cataract through a large incision using instruments from the eye in one piece. Therefore, it was preferable for the cataract to be as hard and dense as possible. This was a significant trauma for the eye, and the surgery ended with placing a large stitch on the incision. The modern technology we use at the Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara” allows for cataract removal using ultrasonic methods, which is minimally aggressive for the eye and implies faster visual recovery. An incision smaller than 3 mm (sometimes even 2 mm) is made on the eye, through which an ultrasonic probe enters, dissolving and aspirating the cataract from the eye, and an artificial lens is immediately implanted. The softer the cataract, the less ultrasonic power is needed, while the harder it is, the more ultrasonic power needs to be applied, which sometimes means a slightly slower recovery.

The desired outcome of visual acuity after cataract surgery is for the patient to see as well as possible at a distance without glasses. For this reason, precise calculations of the power of the intraocular lens implanted in the eye are performed. If the eye has astigmatism before surgery, it can be corrected during surgery with toric intraocular lenses. Glasses for reading and near work are typically prescribed 1 month after surgery. If a multifocal lens is implanted, glasses for reading or distance vision are usually not needed in 95% of cases. Some patients may occasionally need glasses for “intermediate distance,” specifically for computer use.

The patient’s age is not a limiting factor for this type of surgery. Besides cataracts, other eye conditions, primarily diseases of the macula (the yellow spot on the back of the eye), can occur with age. The expected outcome of vision after cataract removal is determined in accordance with the condition of other parts of the eye, which the patient is always informed about. In older patients, the quality of the corneal tissue (the transparent front part of the eye) usually decreases, which may cause some haziness during the surgery. Therefore, a slightly longer recovery time may be needed. The surgery is performed under local anesthesia (using anesthetic eye drops), so there is no fear of sedation or general anesthesia.

The first and mandatory check-up is the morning after the surgery. At that time, the eye’s condition is assessed, the recovery progress is evaluated, and the therapy is adjusted. The next check-up is usually scheduled for 5-7 days later, followed by another one in 3-4 weeks. Typically, the therapy is discontinued at this point, and appropriate glasses are prescribed if needed. After that, the operated eye is checked at 3-month intervals, then at 6 months, and thereafter as agreed upon with your ophthalmologist.

The intraocular lens provides a lifelong solution. It is made of materials that do not elicit a reaction from the body in terms of rejection.

As soon as it is determined that a child has a cataract, it should be removed as soon as possible. Cataract surgery in children should not be delayed because vision cannot develop under the cataract. Cataract surgery increases the chance of developing better vision. It is almost inevitable that some degree of amblyopia (lazy eye) remains, but the sooner the surgery is performed, the greater the chance of better vision development. Like in adults, after cataract removal, an intraocular lens is implanted to optimize vision development. There are different opinions on the type of lens implanted. It is possible to implant both standard acrylic and multifocal lenses. After lens implantation, treatment for amblyopia should continue. Due to the child’s growth, including eye growth, the need for glasses is expected. Sometimes, in adulthood, there may be a need to replace the intraocular lens due to differences in prescription resulting from growth and development. At the Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara,” cataract surgeries are performed in children, and the operating room is fully equipped for these procedures, conducted by an experienced team of ophthalmologists.

The Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara” Banja Luka offers certain payment options for surgical procedures. The surgery can be paid for in cash, with credit cards, or through installment payments (from 10 to 24 installments). Banks we have agreements with for installment payments via credit cards include: Unicredit Bank, Nova Banka, Sberbank, NLB Bank, and Addiko Bank. The Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara” covers the costs of interest for installment payments. We also offer the option of payment in 36 interest-free installments through Ziraat Bank. For more information, call 0800 50 113.


The spots, “cobwebs,” or “floaters” are the most common symptoms of vitreous degeneration in the eye. The vitreous is a gel-like substance that fills the eyeball. Over time, it loses its fluidity, drying up, and its irregularities are visible in the form of floaters, spots, or cobwebs. This is a natural degenerative process, which mostly occurs in older individuals, but in young people with nearsightedness, it can occur much earlier. It does not require any treatment but rather regular patient monitoring. In some cases, if it significantly bothers patients, a deep operation to remove the vitreous, called vitrectomy, can be performed. It is important to note that although this is a normal process in the eye, regular monitoring of patients with changes in the vitreous is necessary because it is possible that during the contraction and detachment of the vitreous from the retina, a rupture may occur, which can cause retinal detachment. Symptoms indicating this type of damage include, along with the usual floaters or cobwebs in front of the eyes, a sudden increase in their number, flashes with closed eyes or in twilight, or a curtain covering the visual field. In that case, it is necessary to urgently consult an ophthalmologist who will, if there is a rupture, perform outpatient laser treatment, or in the worst case, plan urgent surgical intervention for retinal detachment.

Distortion of lines represents a macular disease, the yellow spot which represents the center of vision at the back of the eye. There are two forms of macular degeneration, dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration progresses slowly, but the spreading process can only be slowed down by taking a vitamin complex. Wet macular degeneration can be treated with Avastin or Lucentis injections, or the so-called anti-VEGF therapy, which reduces the permeability of diseased blood vessels and prevents fluid accumulation in the macula.

The danger of bleeding from blood vessels at the back of the eye primarily depends on the location of the bleeding. If the bleeding is distant from the optic nerve and the macula, and is minimal and sporadic, then monitoring and normalization of blood sugar levels are advised. If the bleeding is near or within the macula, it is important to undergo treatment with laser photocoagulation or anti-VEGF therapy.

Diabetes is a chronic and progressive disease that damages the blood vessels of the retina in the eye. Laser photocoagulation is performed to seal off areas that leak fluid and blood, preventing further deterioration of the disease. However, laser therapy cannot cure the underlying disease. If diabetes is not well controlled, it continues to damage the eyes despite the laser treatment.

Avastin and Lucentis are medications used in the treatment of wet macular degeneration. They belong to the group of anti-VEGF antibodies (vascular endothelial growth factor), which reduce the permeability and growth of newly formed blood vessels. Avastin was originally developed for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer but is widely used off-label in ophthalmology worldwide. Lucentis was specifically developed for ocular use and has a smaller molecular structure compared to Avastin. There is currently no known difference in their effectiveness, and studies are ongoing to compare both drugs. Eylea is the most modern drug in this group of therapies, and it differs from the previous two in its molecular approach to treating macular disease and its lower need for repeat dosing. It is important to note that patients can always switch between these medications during treatment.

Depending on the extent of the thrombosis, symptoms can vary. Ocular vein thrombosis often leads to fluid accumulation and swelling (edema) of the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for detailed vision. The standard treatment for this condition today is anti-VEGF therapy with drugs like Avastin, Lucentis, or Eylea, administered via injections every 1-3 months. Starting therapy as early as possible increases the chances of recovery. A recent advancement, also available at the Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara,” is a new injection of the depot formulation Ozurdex, a slow-release corticosteroid that provides effects for up to 6 months.

Given your age, it’s most likely central serous retinopathy (CSR). It often occurs in young men. The cause is not well understood but is associated, among other things, with stress. Therapy is typically supplemented with dorzolamide tablets (Diamox) and diclofenac eye drops (Naclof), along with modifications. The condition usually resolves on its own within a month without leaving any lasting effects on vision. However, in some cases, the condition may become chronic, requiring more aggressive therapy (laser, anti-VEGF), as it can cause lasting visual impairments.

This is also a condition of the macula, where the thin membrane at the front, resembling cellophane in appearance, wrinkles the macula, leading to visual impairment. The only treatment option is surgery through vitrectomy, where microsurgical instruments are used to peel off the membrane from the surface of the macula through small openings in the eye’s sclera. The restoration of visual acuity depends on the duration of the disease; the shorter the duration, the higher the chances of a complete recovery of visual acuity.

Air is typically used in uncomplicated surgeries such as removing blood from the eye. It usually remains in the eye for a week or two and then naturally dissipates. Patients with air in their eyes are advised not to fly for two weeks due to the potential increase in eye pressure. Gas is used in diabetic patients, uncomplicated detachments, superficial macular diseases such as macular holes, and so on. It remains in the eye for about a month. It’s important to note that patients cannot see while gas or air is in the eye. With gas, they should also avoid flying for a month for the same reason as with air. Silicone oil is used when a strong tamponade is needed, usually in more severe detachments and diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The advantage is that the patient can see immediately, but the disadvantage is that the oil must be removed in a separate surgical procedure. Additionally, of all these options, oil tamponade has the highest risk of cataract development, so it is sometimes recommended to combine cataract surgery with vitrectomy. Other complications, such as increased eye pressure, are also possible.

Bionic eye implants are not currently performed at the Special Hospital for Ophthalmology “Dr. Kozomara” as they are still in the experimental phase. However, we maintain constant communication with institutions abroad that are researching bionic eye technology, and we provide our patients with updates on any developments. At the moment, you would not be a candidate. Patients eligible for bionic eye implants typically need to be completely blind but have a preserved optic nerve. Bionic eyes currently provide modest results such as distinguishing between light, darkness, and shapes.


The normal eye pressure is between 10 – 21 mmHg, and in individuals diagnosed with glaucoma, it should be below 19 mmHg.

If the diagnosis of glaucoma is established, then lifelong therapy is necessary. If at a certain stage of treatment, surgical intervention is performed for better pressure control, then over 60% of those operated on no longer depend on drop therapy.

According to our protocols, after laser treatment, eye drops are still used but with reduced intensity and to a lesser extent.

Surgery does not cure glaucoma; it aims to stabilize intraocular pressure. After surgery, in about 40% of cases, anti-glaucoma therapy continues to maintain stable intraocular pressure.

Glaucoma can be hereditary, so for a patient with a positive family history of glaucoma, we recommend a comprehensive glaucoma evaluation and regular check-ups.

Eye pressure generally does not cause pain, except in cases of significantly elevated levels. That’s why glaucoma is often referred to as the “silent thief of sight.” Additionally, the pain threshold varies for each patient.

No. Glaucoma is a syndrome characterized by elevated eye pressure, changes in the visual field, and changes in the optic nerve. In certain cases, eye pressure may be within normal limits, but there may still be changes in the visual field and optic nerve. This condition is referred to as normotensive glaucoma.

In the classic form of open-angle glaucoma, the exact cause is still unknown. In other forms, there is often closure of the angle in the eye (angle-closure glaucoma), or glaucoma may occur as a result of diabetes, central retinal vein occlusion, inflammation inside the eye, bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye, eye injury, or prolonged use of corticosteroid eye drops (secondary forms of glaucoma).

According to scientific research, there is no direct connection between eye pressure and blood pressure.

It is considered that stress can indirectly influence an increase in eye pressure.

Contact lenses

The type of contact lenses is determined based on your age, prescription, and lifestyle habits. If you have high astigmatism, high spherical prescription, or certain corneal diseases (keratoconus), only hard lenses are considered. Often, for nearsighted individuals of younger age, whose prescription is still expected to change, starting with hard lenses is recommended, although it’s not scientifically proven that they slow down the progression of prescription. In most other cases, soft lenses are recommended whenever possible. They are more comfortable and easier to use, and there’s no need for a gradual adaptation as with hard lenses. Soft contact lenses are prescribed much more frequently in practice. Today, there is a wide range of soft contact lenses available on the market. They are categorized based on the recommended wearing time: daily, bi-weekly, monthly, quarterly, and yearly. Daily and bi-weekly lenses are increasingly prescribed because of their excellent oxygen and water permeability, and due to their short wearing period and frequent replacement, the risk of infection is reduced.

In the case of hard and rigid gas-permeable lenses, it is strictly not allowed. The profession does not recommend sleeping with soft contact lenses despite some manufacturers allowing it for certain types of soft contact lenses (Night&Day) in their instructions. The danger lies in the increased risk of infection if they are not cleaned regularly (every night) in appropriate solutions. Additionally, the oxygen and water permeability restricts the cornea’s ‘breathing’ while wearing the lenses, especially if worn continuously for 24 hours. In such cases, increased vascularization of the corneal periphery may occur. This occurrence signals the need to reduce the wearing time of the lenses as the cornea is not receiving adequate oxygen.

You can if your prescription allows it. In cases of high astigmatism or high prescription, achieving the necessary visual acuity with soft contact lenses is often not possible. The reason is that soft contact lenses are manufactured up to a certain level of cylinder and prescription. If it’s not possible to prescribe soft lenses of the appropriate prescription, wearing semi-rigid lenses is recommended. If the prescription allows, there are no difficulties in switching from soft to semi-rigid lenses. However, this process is somewhat more difficult and demanding because it requires adjustment to wearing semi-rigid lenses.

You can, as long as the nap/rest doesn’t last longer than an hour or two, and it doesn’t become a daily habit. Longer naps with soft lenses are not recommended because the eye with the lens doesn’t ‘breathe’ as it should. If this happens, it’s necessary to remove the lenses afterward, store them in an appropriate solution, and ‘rest’ your eyes, meaning wear eyeglass correction during that time. It’s advisable to combine wearing glasses and lenses whenever possible.

Neither diving nor swimming with lenses is recommended because it increases the risk of eye infection. In water, especially freshwater, various pathogens exist, which can come into contact with the eye and proliferate in the area between the cornea and the lens, being perfectly protected from external influences and the eye’s defense mechanisms. Similarly, if you dive with lenses, there’s a high chance of the lens falling out of your eye. However, if there’s no alternative, wearing a diving mask over the eyes is mandatory. In this case, it’s best to use daily disposable soft lenses that you discard after a single use, and for the next opportunity, use a completely new pair of lenses.

That is strictly forbidden because tap water can contain various microorganisms, some of which are so dangerous that they can lead to vision loss (e.g., Acanthamoeba). Rinsing and storing lenses in tap water or other (inadequate) solutions is prohibited. It’s necessary to use only solutions recommended by the lens manufacturer or by an ophthalmologist/optician. These are usually called ‘multipurpose’ solutions, which contain all the necessary ingredients for lens preservation and cleaning. Do not shower, wash your face, or swim with lenses – this way, you minimize the risk of infection with dangerous pathogens.

No, they are not harmful because the colors used in them are biocompatible (not harmful to tissues). The same cleaning and storing instructions apply to them, with emphasis on a slightly shorter recommended wearing time compared to non-colored lenses. Colored soft lenses can also be made in the appropriate prescription (each manufacturer has specific available diopter ranges). Similarly, they can be daily, bi-weekly, or monthly lenses.

There are no contraindications for wearing soft contact lenses during air travel.

Astigmatism refers to irregular curvature of the cornea, which is corrected using cylindrical lenses/lenses. There are so-called soft toric contact lenses available on the market that can correct astigmatism to a certain extent. They are an excellent choice for patients with not too high cylindrical prescriptions. Currently, toric lenses with prescriptions up to -2.25 diopters of the cylinder are available. The issue arises for patients with such high cylindrical prescriptions that cannot be corrected by soft toric lenses. For them, semi-rigid lenses need to be prescribed, as they are the only ones that can provide maximum visual acuity.

If your prescription allows it, it’s possible to wear soft contact lenses occasionally. In that case, it’s best to opt for daily disposable soft contact lenses that you discard after daily use and take a completely new pair for the next occasion. This eliminates the need for cleaning, storage, and reusing the same lens. It reduces the risk of infection. If you’re considering contact lenses for the first time and engage in sports, wearing soft contact lenses is recommended (lower likelihood of lens dislodgement and less risk in case of impact to the eye compared to semi-rigid lenses).

Today, we have soft contact lenses with daily, bi-weekly, monthly, quarterly, and yearly replacement schedules. This indicates the maximum wearing time for one pair of lenses. Of course, this means that the lenses are still removed from the eye and stored in the appropriate solution every evening. It often happens in the market that the suggested wearing time is longer than what the manufacturer recommends. In such cases, even the manufacturer cannot guarantee that extended lens wear will not have harmful effects on the eye. Therefore, wearing lenses for an extended period is not recommended. Soft lenses are made of suitable materials that are permeable to oxygen and water, and with extended wear, these characteristics may change, reducing the eye’s ‘breathing’ beneath the lens.

Children’s ophthalmology and strabismus

It’s never too early for an ophthalmic examination, considering that visual development is most intense in very young children. An examination is recommended to detect possible eye misalignment and refractive errors. Although it’s common for eyes to slightly deviate in the first 6 months due to the immaturity of the nervous system, after this period, if the eye continues to turn inward, it may indicate some form of strabismus. Although the actual visual acuity at this age cannot be precisely determined, special equipment tailored to young children, as well as pupil dilation and skiascopy, can help identify refractive errors. If strabismus or a refractive error is diagnosed, it’s possible to prescribe glasses or further therapeutic measures.

In children aged 4 with intermittent strabismus, a comprehensive ophthalmological examination is first necessary to determine the condition. If strabismus is noticed but is corrected with glasses, it’s referred to as accommodative strabismus, where surgery is not necessary as strabismus can be controlled with glasses. If strabismus is not corrected or is not adequately corrected with glasses after several months of monitoring, the option of surgery is considered.

After strabismus surgery, there is a possibility that the eye may again deviate in the same or opposite direction, especially if the operated eye was amblyopic. Reoperation is possible, and the decision depends on the degree of eye deviation and intraoperative findings. Recovery after surgery is fast, and the patient typically stays in the hospital for only one night. It’s necessary to follow the ophthalmologist’s instructions after surgery and avoid physical exertion for several weeks.

In patients with amblyopic eye, surgery can be performed to improve aesthetics, but the expected results may be limited. Additionally, it’s possible that the surgery will need to be repeated due to the increased risk of recurrent strabismus.

In individuals with nerve damage that innervates the eye muscle, such as the abducens nerve, strabismus may be present, and double vision is common. Nerve damage cannot be cured, but symptoms can be alleviated by wearing prism glasses or through surgical intervention. Surgery may help the eye to align straight, which can reduce symptoms, but it won’t completely resolve the problem, especially if there is amblyopia in that eye.

In any case, it’s important to regularly follow the ophthalmologist’s instructions and react promptly to preserve and improve vision and eye function.

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